What to do in an emergency

First of all

When you are involved in an accident in an emergency you need to:

  • make sure you are not in danger and that the victim is not
  • when you are safe, call an ambulance (if necessary)
  • carry out first aid

What to do if the victim of the accident is unconscious but breathing?

In the event of an emergency, if a person is unconscious but breathing and has no other serious matters, you can proceed with the lateral safety position:

  • place the person on their side
  • try to clear the airway by tilting the head and raising the chin
  • monitor breathing and pulse continuously
  • if possible, turn the person on the other side after 30 minutes

What to do if the accident victim is unconscious and does not breathe?

If a person is not breathing after an accident, call for help and report the emergency. Later, if you are able, practice cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a combination of cardiac massage and mouth-to-mouth respiration:

  1. place the hands at the center of the victim’s rib cage and with the ends of the hand press with a depth of 4-5 cm with a constant speed
  2. after 30 compressions, carry out mouth-to-mouth breathing
  3. pinching the nose to plug it, bringing its mouth closer to that of the victim and blowing into it.
  4. Check that your upper body rises. Give two mouth to mouth breaths of one second each
    continue with the cycle of 30 chest compressions and two mouth-to-mouth breaths until there is a sign of recovery or until help arrives

What are the main emergency situations?

What to do in case of burns and burns?

It should:

  • remove all clothes or jewelry unless they are attached to the skin
  • cool the skin with cold, but not icy, running water for a minimum of 10 minutes
  • cover the burn with something sterile that is not a soft fabric, such as plastic, and do not smear creams on the burn
  • if appropriate, raise the limbs to reduce swelling or relieve pain
  • call for help and report the emergency situation

For chemical burns, understand which substance caused the accident, after removing any tissue, remove the product from the skin if it is a powder and rinse the burn with cold running water for at least 20 minutes.

What to do in case of poisoning?

If it is a manageable obstruction, the person is encouraged to cough to remove the obstruction from the mouth. If the obstruction is more serious and it is an emergency situation hit the back between the shoulder blades with the ends of the hands. If there is still obstruction, stand behind the person and wrap your arms around your abs, with a fist under the rib cage. Connect hands and press firmly back and forth. Check the mouth and remove the obstruction. This procedure can be used in case of emergency also for children. For newborns, place the face down along the forearm. Hit the shoulder blades with the end of the hand. If the airways are still blocked, turn the child over and press on his rib cage. Use two fingertips to press up and down on the bones of the chest, a finger along the part below the nipples.

What to do in case of poisoning?

Poisonous substances can be swallowed, absorbed through the skin, inhaled or injected. They can include common household substances such as bleach, prescribed drugs or wild plants and fungi. Once in the body they can enter the bloodstream and get to the organs and tissues. The effects of poisoning depend on the substance swallowed but may include vomiting, loss of consciousness, pain or burning sensation. If the person is unconscious, try to wake her up. While waiting for help, make sure the airway is open. If you breathe better place the person in the safety position, preferably with the head down so that in case of vomiting is not swallowed. If the person is unconscious, in emergencies, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation and call for help.

What to do in case of electric shock?

If someone has taken an electric shock, call for help immediately. if you cannot reach the electrical source, you must protect yourself by standing on an isolated material and using something non-conductive, such as a wooden handle, to move the person from the source of electricity. Do not go near the person until you are sure that the electricity source cannot cause further danger. If the victim of the accident is not breathing and it is an emergency case, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation and call for help

What to do in case of bleeding?

If a person has severe bleeding, the main goal is to stop it and minimize the effects of the shock. First, call for help if you are in an emergency situation. If disposable gloves are available, use them to prevent infection from possible infections. Check that there is nothing inside the wound. If there is a need to press firmly on both sides of the object and create a coating around it before bandaging the wound to avoid putting pressure on the object itself. If there is nothing, exercise and maintain pressure on the wound with your hand, using clean protection if possible. If there is a wound on a limb and there are no fractures, raise the limb to decrease the blood supply. If there is a part of the body amputated, like a finger, wrap it in a plastic bag, a resistant film or soft material and keep it in the cold. If possible, place the amputated part in the ice, but without it being in direct contact with it.

What to do in case of drowning principle?

When the person is on the ground, if not breathing, practice cardiopulmonary resuscitation. If the victim is unconscious but breathing, put the person in a safe position and call for help immediately.

What to do in case of epistaxis (nosebleeds)?

The person should be seated and asked to tilt the head back to prevent the blood from draining from the nostrils. Ask the person to apply pressure with their fingers so that the blood supply is stopped. After 10 minutes, you can stop putting pressure on your nose. If the bleeding has not ended, continue with the closure of the nostrils for another two 10-minute periods. In case of emergency, if bleeding is strong, call the emergency room.

What to do in the event of a heart attack?

Symptoms of a heart attack include:

  • persistent pain in the center of the rib cage
  • tingling in the left arm
  • strong sweating, cold skin
  • ashen face and blue shades on the lips
  • lack of breath and gasps
  • sudden fainting and dizziness
  • rapid or weakened pulse that can be irregular
  • nausea and / or vomiting

If you think that a person is having or has had a heart attack it is an emergency and you must position it comfortably and call for help immediately. Have the person sit, if possible in the W position: sit with knees bent. If the person is conscious, it must be reassured and given 300 mg of aspirin in a chewing pill. Check vital functions until help arrives. If the person loses consciousness, practice cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

What to do in case of stroke or stroke?

In the event of a stroke, the FAST procedure should be considered: Facial (face), Arm (arms), Speech (language), Test (test all signs). Call for help immediately. The guide to perform the FAST intervention in emergencies includes:

  • facial weakness: if the person is unable to smile and has a lowering of the eyelids and lips
  • arm weakness: check if the person is able to raise his arms
  • language problems: check if the person is able to speak and understand
  • check all the signals: call for help immediately if you think a stroke is in progress

What to do in the event of a fracture?

It can be difficult to determine if a person has a fracture or muscle tear or a ligament injury. Furthermore, if a person has a fracture of a particular joint, he has functional impotence, something that does not persist in the event of muscle tearing or injury to a ligament. In fact, following a muscle tear there is a limitation of movement, rather than a real functional impotence. Moreover, if the tear is minimal, the person can also make movements on demand in a difficult and tiring manner. A ligament injury can be ethereal, difficult to probe. In any case it is always better to act as if it were a fracture. If the victim of the accident is unconscious, has difficulty breathing or is bleeding, this is an emergency and must be treated first. If the person is conscious, prevent further problems by keeping it until you reach the emergency room. If it is an arm or a finger, the person can be taken to the hospital without causing other damage; if it’s a column or a leg, it’s better to call for help. If a shock is suspected (if the person is pale, cold and sweaty, has a weak pulse, fast and shallow breath) and there is no dangerous fracture that prevents the person’s mobility, let the victim lie down. Remove all tight clothing and raise your legs above the heart area. Do not give the victim food or drink as they may need general anesthesia upon arrival at the hospital.

What to do in case of anaphylactic shock?

Anaphylactic shock is a serious allergic reaction that can occur after an insect bite or after eating a certain food. The reaction can be very fast, it is triggered within a few seconds or minutes of contact with the allergen (the thing to which the person is allergic) and can become an emergency. During the reaction, the substances enter the blood causing the pressure to drop. The respiratory tract shrinks making breathing difficult. The tongue and throat may swell and obstruct the airways. If you think that a person has an anaphylactic shock, call for help immediately. Next, check if the person has any medications. Some people who are aware of having an allergy may have epinephrine, a type of adrenaline that is usually in the form of a pre-prepared syringe. You can either help the person to administer it or you can even administer it. Make sure the person is well and is breathing properly until medical help arrives. If the person is conscious, help her sit upright, as it is the best position to take in this type of emergency.

Fonte: www.pazienti.it